54 ethnic group- General introduction

The ethnic groups in VietNam under Vietnamese - Muong language

1. Chut ethnic group

Chut ethnic group is residing in some communes of two districts of Minh Hoa and Bo Trach, Quang Binh Province. Chut people live in milpa agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting and gathering. Except Sach group lives by agriculture while other groups gather and hunt which plays an important role, even it main existence in the years of losing crop; weaving craftsmanship and carpentry are common. Chut people settle and cluster into villages (Ca Ven), but scattered villages, each village has leader honored by people, usually a family patriarch with prestige in the village. Housing is often unsustainable, they used to stay in the hut used straps, used fork or column in the cave or roof rock. Until before 1945, RUC, Arem groups mostly still live in caves, stone roof. Chut people do not know weaving, in summer, men wear a loin-cloth, half-naked, women wear skirts. In winter, they wear clothes made of bark. Currently people dress like Kinh. Conjugal relationship is sustainable; wedding is held at the the bride’s family, then meet the bride and bring her home. The most important gift is pigs, chickens, necessarily dried monkey meat. Funeral is simple and is affected by Kinh, are often held for 3 days, then taken for bury, carry earth to make the grave, after 3 days the patriarch hold a ceremony for conjure the spirit of the dead for residing on the ancestors, which are not cared. Besides ancestor worship, altar is placed at patriarch’s house, Chut people worship many ghosts, god of forest, agriculture, kitchen, etc. The agricultural ritual as the ceremony is usually done seeding, seeding after the ceremony, worshiping rice soul, harvest celebration. Rich folk arts such as folk songs Ka Tum, Ka Lenh, stories; musical instrument with panpipe organ, flute, etc.

2. Kinh ethnic group (other name: Viet)

Kinh is distributed throughout 61 provinces, but the largest distribution is at Delta, urban. As residents with oldest indigenous origin and development from the primitive age, Kinh’s ancientor has definitely settled in the Northern and north-central region. During the development process of the Vietnamese history, Kinh is always the center for attraction and solidarity of ethnic group to build defense the country. Economically, after escaping from primitive life, Kinh has known metal, crafted the working tools of iron, copper utensils and copper alloys, with emergence of working tools of iron, Kinh people invented ancient Vietnamese civilization brilliantly, with wet rice agriculture, Kinh successfully exploited the fertile plains, together with rice agriculture Kinh has created a lot of traditional craft, creating countless goods needed for life from processing food to clothe, to housing and living facilities. Kinh economy has experienced thousands of years before modern times (late nineteenth century and early twentieth century) is still agricultural economy combined with traditional craftsmanship, is considered typical economy for Vietnam and region.
On the social organization, Kinh after escaping from the cave life, settled and created village life (that the ancients called person) as a place to settle. In the village there are often many hamlets, hamlet is equivalent to a village. Every village has a communal house where it meets and commonly worship. Kinh lives in the ground. The main house structure is usually 3 spaces or 5 spaces and the middle space is the most important one, set the altar. Culturally, Kinh is one of the ethnic groups which always reach the level of the brilliant civilization of all era, from the ancient Vietnamese civilization, Dai Viet civilization Vietnam after the tenth century until today all is proved that. In culture - civilization, from material culture, spiritual culture and behavior culture, Kinh created the character himself, selectively absorbing the advantages of the other civilizations to enrich his ethnic group. The expressions of Viet culture is really rich and various, as sample belief culture: from belief of ancestors, the national hero with his credit for a village and country and on the basis of acquiring Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Catholicism, etc. All are modified to fit, to adapt to the physical life and spirit life of Kinh as special culture of Kinh belief culture. In such cultural beliefs, ancestral worship is the most important belief of Kinh. The altar is placed in the most suitable place in the house: the ritual on the anniversary, festival and weeks, etc. In culture, the literary – artistic creation from tradition to modernization is Kinh’s very typical character. Folk Literary and art with rich genres: fairy tales, folk songs, folk songs, proverbs, etc reflect all aspects of the entire national life. Folklore literacy has contributed greatly to the preservation of stuff, the national identity. Literary writing has gained great achievements in the Ly-Tran period, and especially from the fifteenth century onwards with the genius writers Nguyen Trai, Nguyen Du, Ho Xuan Huong, etc. The arts as art, music, theater, etc highly developed, is professionalized.

3. Muong

The Muong has resided permanently in the province of Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Phu Tho, etc. Regarding the historical origin, Muong cognated with Kinh. economy is mainly to plant wet rice; in addition to paddy field, the Muong also till the fields, hunting, fishing, gathering and producing handicraft. Social organization is primarily mountainous village, each consists some families, more or less, depending on resident area specified, the mountainous village has tight organization. The majority of the Muong live at stilt, type of house with 4 roofs. Mong wine is famous by processing of yeast strong flavor, to invite guests and drink in collective parties. Typical clothing of women is headgear and short white blouses, black skirts with leggings and gaudy patterned textile textures. Marriage has many features similar to Kinh. Funeral is picky and expensive. The Muong has rich folklore culture with ancient stories (mo) famous "De dat de nuoc", "Len troi" ... Book "Mo-Muong epic" more than 2,000 pages thick, is priceless heritage not only of that of the Muong but also one of Vietnamese culture. Rich folk dancing as Animal dance, cotton dance, instrument dance with Gong used unique amulet sing, especially in the Muong, it must be mentioned song holiday, these are mountain worship pieces, sprayers read by powwow and singed in the funeral. Muong language is ancent Vietnamese regionalized, there are 80% Muong vocabulary identical to Vietnamese language before the twentieth century, there is still quite sustainable reserve in the KInh Community in Ha Tinh.

4. Tho

Tho people are living in the western region of Nghe An under Con Cuong District, Nghia Dan, Tan Ky. Main manufacturing activity is till the fields, a small number do wet farming, the cultivation of high growth. Food crops are grown mainly rice, followed by cassava and maize. In the group of candies, Mon, Cuoi, Flax plants are grown much and maintained an important position in their economic life. Fisheries are also developing, hunting and gathering but only developed in some areas, but it has contributed significantly to reducing the difficulties in their lives.
Regarding social organization, people living in villages such as Kinh, each village has been annually elected as the village boss. Men dress Kinh, women dress according to their hobby, each group imitates the style of the Thai, Muong and Kinh dress depending on the conditions of each group. Marriages are mainly between Tho people together, free to love through festival activities, practices that allow them to sleep together as we learn together and called “ngu mai”, only to find out, talk and not have sex with each other before marriage. Marriage of Tho people must be undergone multiple steps. Normally when the bridegroom’s family should take a buffalo, 100 white piaster, 30 square piece of cloth, 6 baskets of steamed glutinous rice, a pig. Many areas also live with wife’s family. Funerals remain many procedures and often costly. Ancestor worship is key, in addition to a wide variety of worship gods, ghosts, gods, especially related to fighting the enemy and expending land. Rich festival as take to fields annually, so it is more taboo in life and production which Tho people perform.

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