54 Ethnic groups - List of Ethnic groups - Thai


Proper name: Thai
Other name: Tay Thanh, Man Thanh, Tay Do, Tho, Hang Tong, Man Thanh, Tay Đam, Tay Khao, Nhai, Hang Tong (Tay Muong), Pu Thay, Tho Đa Bac..
Local group: including two main groups: Black Thai (Tay Dam), White Thai (Tay Don or Khao).
Population: 1.550.423 people (General Statistic Office in 2009) that is the 3rd highest population in Vietnam.
Language and writing: They speak a Tay-Thai language (Thai-Kadai language family). Thai people have the writing soon in the form of Sanscrit so there is a literary capital (literature, rule, folk song)
Early history: Their ancestors in the mainland of the Southeast Asia; Thai people have lived in the North West of Vietnam soon.
Place of residence: Thai people live in 63 provinces, cities in the whole country, but they concentrate in some provinces such as Son La, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Hoa Binh, the West of Thanh Hoa and Nghe An.
Economic characteristics: Thai people grow wet rice with agricultural irrigation system in valley. They grow cotton, dye plants, mulberry to weave fabric. The favourite product of Thai people is brocade with unique and coloured patterns. They feed many poultry, castle and fish; weave and make pottery by hand.
Habits and customs:
Eating: Traditional food is sticky rice. “Cheo” dish is an indispensable dish. They have some unique dishes such as “nam pia”, salad, dip, salted, sauce from fresh meat and fish, specially the dishes are processed by grilling, drying and etc. They like spice: spicy, sour, bitter, acrid, fleshy or drink jar wine and smoke pipe tobacco.
Housing: A village includes 50 stilt houses. Thai Den people’s stilt houses are designed as the tortoise shell and with “khau cut” at the top of the house. White Thai people’s houses are the same of Tay-Nung people’s houses. Thai people’s houses in Thanh Hoa and Nghe An include four roofs. Each house has two stoves; one is used for receiving guests and heating and the other is for cooking.
Means of transportation: Thai people mainly use rattan; moreover, they also use papoose with string crossed over brow; horses to carry. Along with rivers, they are good at using dovetail-shaped boats.
Marriage: Boys and girls are free to find out and select each other. Previously, Thai people are based on the purchase and sales of the marriage, concurrently the bridegroom must stay with his wife’s family. Therefore, the marriage will be implemented through two basic steps, including up-marriage (đong khửn) and down-marriage (đong lông).
Funeral: Thai people think that the deadth will continue to live in the next world. Thus, the funeral is the ceremony to take them to the next world "mường trời".
Festivals: Thai people have many festivals such as: Mass for crops, mass for rain, Ban flower, Han Khuong, Kin Pa Then, xang khan, xen bane, xen muong, xip xi, xoe chieng…
Belief: Thai Den people worship their ancestor in lunar July and August. White Thai people celebrate lunar New Year. Muong village mostly worship the Land God, the Mountain God, the Water God and the soul.
Clothes: Thai women wind Pieu towels; wear black dresses, short jacket with butterfly, spider and cicada-shaped silver buttons, clung jackets; tied green silk to their waist and carry key chain near the hip. They can wear more black long dress or pullover, off-the-chest dress with butterfly-shaped buttons; tied the string to their waist. Men wear cut-trousers, belt, topless short jacket and black shirt inside. In ordinary day, they roll the towel into axe-head shape and roll the towels with arm length in ceremonies.
Cultural life: Thai people have literary words with Thai writing (folk songs, proverbs, myths, tales, legends, comic poetry and so on). Thai people like singing, especially hand dances. (They like to recite a poem, sing along with the poem lyric, and accompany each other and dance. There are many types of dance such as xoe dance and sap dance (mua xoe and mua sap) and etc. “Hạn khuống and ném còn” are two famous cultural characteristics.


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